Category Archives: Tutorials

R: How to reshape data from wide to long format, and back again

Many studies take repeated observations on subjects. For example, clinical trials record outcomes from subjects before and after treatments, and laboratory studies might record physiological outcomes from the same subjects over time. In a dataframe, when observations from each subject are written on one row and repeated observations are stored as different column variables, we say the data are in

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Add jitter to your figures using Python and R

Scientific figures are at their most informative when they include the individual data used to calculate summary statistics such as means and standard deviations. Why is showing data important? As previously pointed out here and here, figures with means, standard deviations, standard errors, etc. can be misleading and conceal the nature of the underlying data. As highlighted in our previous

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