Tag Archives: statistics

Verify if data are normally distributed in R: part 2

In our previous post, we learned how to inspect whether or data were normally distributed or not using plots. It is always important to visualise our data. However, inspecting such plots is open for interpretation and, possibly, abuse. We will now learn how to analyse our data and generate numerical values that describe how our data are distributed. Quantifying the

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Verify if data are normally distributed in R: part 1

Many statistical tests assume that the sampling distribution is normally distributed. This does not mean that the data we collected for our experiment is normally distributed, but rather that the distribution of mean values from many samples of the same size will be normally distributed. Unfortunately, we do no have access to the sampling distribution. However, based on the central

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Fixing statistics

Statistics are not broken. The problem lies with how scientists use, interpret and report them. At the end of 2017, Nature asked five influential statisticians to recommend a key change that would improve science. Adjust for human cognition The first change was proposed by Jeff Leek of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and it is based on the

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What are degrees of freedom in statistics? – Part 2

In a previous post we saw that t distributions with more degrees of freedom approximate the Normal distribution more closely, and degrees of freedom are increased by testing more subjects. How do degrees of freedom influence t values when calculating confidence intervals? The confidence interval about an effect indicates how the effect varies if the study is repeated many times.

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