Research on research

Self reflection is important. As a human endeavour with the whole of society as its beneficiary, science should also have introspection; looking in on itself to identify things worth celebrating, as well as things that need improvement. In a recent article, Ioannidis explains why we need meta-research: research on research. Meta-research The goal of meta-research is to understand and improve

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Does it matter that data are Normally distributed?

Hypothesis testing vs. Estimation Hypothesis tests require that populations are Normally distributed in order for the tests to be reliable. When samples are drawn from Normally distributed populations, the distributions of F or t statistics can be calculated for any given sample size, and the F or t statistic for a specific experiment can be obtained from the distribution. This

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Reproducibility: The Transparency and Openness Promotion Guidelines

In a previous post, we profiled the EQUATOR network and reporting guidelines. These guidelines stress transparency in reporting study methods, and most are relevant to study designs in clinical research, such as randomised controlled trials, epidemiological studies and systematic reviews. Taking a different vein, the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines were developed to enhance transparency in reporting of study

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Multiple linear regression in R

In a previous blog, we applied simple linear regression to an interesting problem: how well does a measure of wine density account for alcohol content. This was considered simple linear regression because we had one outcome variable (alcohol content) and one predictor variable (wine density). We can extend this approach to have more than one predictor. Specifically, we can use

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