Research concepts: Confidence interval of a proportion

Data which exist in categories that only have 2 possible values are known as binary data. “Yes” or “No” survey responses, dead or alive, male or female, etc. are examples of binary values. These data can be expressed as proportions (e.g. the proportion of male students in a class), are known as binomial variables, and follow a binomial distribution. The

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Why Type I errors are worse than Type II errors

Most introductory statistics courses include a section explaining Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) errors in hypothesis testing. If you have been through such courses, you would have learned that the tolerance for Type I error is set by the significance level (alpha =0.05; the usual default) while Type II error is controlled by statistical power which

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Research concepts: From sample to population

In doing research, we apply the scientific method to answer questions. For example, does cigarette smoking cause lung cancer? What are the mechanisms of weakness after stroke? Why do cells become cancerous? What properties are specific to the poison of South American tree frogs? We want to understand all the individuals being studied (i.e. people, cells, frogs, etc.) but it

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Buy a ticket, play the funding lottery!

Academics and researchers must apply for grant funding. These grants provide the financial support required to carry out the research proposed in the grant. These funds are used to purchase equipment, pay salaries, cover publication and travel costs, etc. Being successful in a national funding competition is a key indicator of success. Not only can the researchers carry out the

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Journal impact factor = reliable research?

Academics and scientists, especially those in administrative positions looking to rate their peers/staff/candidates, have traditionally used impact factors as an indicator of quality and influence. Only the best, most trustworthy and innovative research gets published in journals with high impact factors. At least, that is what they would like us to believe… What is an impact factor? The impact factor

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