Reproducibility: The Transparency and Openness Promotion Guidelines

In a previous post, we profiled the EQUATOR network and reporting guidelines. These guidelines stress transparency in reporting study methods, and most are relevant to study designs in clinical research, such as randomised controlled trials, epidemiological studies and systematic reviews.

Taking a different vein, the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines were developed to enhance transparency in reporting of study design, data citation and data analysis, regardless of study design. The TOP Guidelines outline the following core standards:

  • Data citation
  • Data, materials, and code transparency
  • Design and analysis
  • Pre-registration
  • Replication

The guidelines aim to encourage disclosure of procedures in research conduct so as to increase research credibility. Journals, research organisations and funding bodies can support the guidelines by implementing the core standards to different levels:



Over 800 journals including Science, Nature Human Behavior and The Royal Society have implement TOP-compliant policies (as of May 2018). It is hoped that these initiatives translate to improved reproducibility and credibility in research.


Nosek et al (2015) Promoting an open research culture. Science 348:1422-1425.


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