Author Archives: Joanna Diong

What is an exact test? An example using Fisher’s Exact test

Suppose you conduct a study to compare an outcome between healthy people and people with stroke, but you want to check whether the proportion of men and women in each group are similar. The Fisher’s Exact test is often used to test differences in proportions between groups, similar to a Chi-Square test. But what is an exact test? This helpful

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More on regression to the mean

Previously, we saw how regression to the mean can lead to false results. In a talk titled Regression towards the mean, or Why was Terminator III such a disappointment?, statistician Martin Bland explains this phenomenon and how it appears in different examples. The Victorian statistician Francis Galton measured the heights of parents and children and found that taller parents tended

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Break, Continue and Pass statements using for loops in Python

In programming, for loops are used to automate repetitive tasks, such as analysing similar datasets from different subjects. Sometimes, a dataset might be slightly different to another such that the data can be used but needs to be analysed differently in the loop. For example, data might have been accidentally sampled at a higher rate, or a nested trial needs

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