## What are degrees of freedom in statistics? – Part 2

In a previous post we saw that t distributions with more degrees of freedom approximate the Normal distribution more closely, and degrees of freedom are increased by testing more subjects. How do degrees of freedom influence t values when calculating confidence intervals? The confidence interval about an effect indicates how the effect varies if the study is repeated many times.

## What are degrees of freedom in statistics? – Part 1

When we perform a t test or calculate confidence intervals about an effect for a small study, we specify a t value from one of a family of t distributions depending on the number of degrees of freedom. What are degrees of freedom in statistics? The number of degrees of freedom refers to the number of separate, relevant pieces of

## Calculating sample size using precision for planning

Most sample size calculations for independent or paired samples are performed based on power to detect an effect of a certain size, assuming there’s no effect. Instead, Cumming and Calin-Jageman recommend that readers plan studies to detect precise effects. The 95% confidence interval (CI) indicates precision about effects. Therefore, it is possible to plan studies to detect narrow 95% CIs

## The Conversation: Seven deadly sins of statistical misintepretation, and how to avoid them

The Conversation recently published a nice piece by Louis and Chapman on common statistical misinterpretations and how they can be avoided. Here is summary of the main points: Problem Reason Solution 1. Assuming small differences are meaningful Most small differences are due to chance, not meaningful differences Ask for the margin of error (ie. half of the 95% CI): if